Wellness and Diets

What You Need To Know About The low-FODMAP Diet

Diet plan

What is the low-FODMAP diet?
If you are considering the low-FODMAP diet (FODMAP is an acronym for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, And Polyols) for yourself or someone you know, then you already have a good idea of just how challenging life can be with a digestive disorder. The advantage of a low-FODMAP eating plan is still coming into its own and research is still continuing. 

What Are FODMAPs?
We have learned that FODMAP stands for "Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, And Polyols." While you don’t put saccharides and polyols on your grocery list or look for them on the menu, FODMAPs are in plenty of foods you eat, from such innocent seeming items such as fresh fruits and dairy to known unhealthful items like processed snacks and soft drinks.

FODMAP foods were first identified in 2001 by gastroenterologist Dr. Peter Gibson and nutritionist Dr. Sue Shepherd with their team at Monash University of Melbourne, Australia. 

What they found is that certain individuals with functional gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and a range of other digestive conditions are far less likely to suffer painful gastrointestinal symptoms and reactions when they limited ingestion of foods that are high in FODMAPs.

The foods that were the most likely to cause problems were high in lactose, fructose, fructans, galactans, and sugar alcohols (polyols), including:
lactose: milk and milk products
fructose: fruits, honey, and high-fructose corn syrup
fructans: wheat, onions, and garlic
galactans: beans, lentils, and soy
polyols: stone fruits, avocados, and artificial sweeteners like sorbitol and manitol


What Is The Science Behind Fodmaps?

When you see the list of foods that are considered high-FODMAPs, you might wonder what they have in common. There are both "healthful" foods and "junk" foods in both high- and low-FODMAP groups. The answer is that they all contain carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates—simple and complex carbs and fiber—are concentrated in plant foods. Simple carbohydrates are listed on packaged food nutrition labels as sugars, which can be the sugars naturally found in milk, fruits, and vegetables or processed and refined sugars and syrups. Complex carbohydrates found in grains and legumes, as well as in fruits and vegetables, are sometimes referred to as starch. These carbohydrates are broken down in the gut by the bacteria that live there into the nutrients our bodies need. 
In addition, there are some carbohydrates that humans are not able to digest, known as fiber. Even though fiber doesn’t supply nutrients to the body, it is still important to our health and digestive system. Soluble fibers have been shown to be part of keeping cholesterol levels and plaque low. Insoluble fiber has long been known for its ability to keep us "regular."

All these different types of carbohydrates share a characteristic: once they arrive in the gut, they begin to ferment. If something happens to disrupt the amount of bacteria at work in the gut or the amount of time a food spends in the gut, there can be several consequences.

Someone with a functional digestive disorder may be unable to digest certain carbohydrates for a variety of reasons. 
They may lack a specific enzyme or enough bacteria in the small intestine, for example. When carbohydrates aren’t digested in the small intestine—a condition referred to as malabsorption—the bacteria in the large intestine suddenly find themselves with a bounty of the things they love to eat. The by-products of the bacterial feasting include acids, alcohols, and carbon dioxide, the same process that happens when yeast bread rises or beer is brewed. Since this is happening inside your gut, the gas is trapped. That’s why some foods can make you not only feel but look bloated.

This is unpleasant enough, but it gets more complicated. Once fermentation is under way, it changes the pH of the gut, opening the door for a host of additional symptoms, ranging from gas to belching and inflammation to acid reflux. The rapid growth of the bacteria puts stress on the membranes lining the intestines and gut, and they become permeable. Important nutrients are able to leak out of the digestive tract before they are properly digested and absorbed.

In addition, these compounds are considered "osmotic" since they can attract and hold moisture. Bakers and pastry chefs take advantage of sugar’s ability to attract and hold moisture to keep baked goods moist and flavorful for a long time. 
When someone sensitive to FODMAPs ingests sugar, they end up feeling, at the very least, bloated and uncomfortable.

The low-FODMAP diet has been around since 2001, but it has taken some time to gather evidence to support the benefits of the diet. 
Over time, though, increasing numbers of individuals have gotten relief from their IBS symptoms by cutting out high-FODMAP foods. Individuals with other conditions have also found it helpful.

11 Signs You Might have a Digestive Disorder

If you haven’t gotten a specific diagnosis for having a digestive disorder, you may still suspect that foods you are eating are making you sick. The reactions you have may be subtle, but you can still notice them. Eventually, you can even begin to anticipate them, since they happen every time you eat. There are a lot of reasons you might be suffering, from food allergies and celiac disease to lactose intolerance or even food-borne illnesses. Talking to your 7 doctor and getting tested is critical.
Learning to avoid foods that are to blame and to concentrate on foods that don’t make you suffer is the goal of the low-FODMAP diet.

If the following symptoms describe you, this may be a sign that FODMAPs are to blame:

1. Mealtime makes you vaguely anxious, because you know that in a few minutes or hours, you will start to feel cramps, or worse.
2. You feel uncomfortable when you are out in public because you just can’t tell when you will need to find a bathroom.
3. Your stomach pains are so strong you cannot concentrate on work.
4. Whether you get plenty of sleep or not, you feel worn out and exhausted.
5. You have heartburn after you eat. Maybe over-the-counter antacids work or maybe you feel like you need something stronger.
6. You don’t plan outings in the great outdoors because there are no bathrooms.
7. You are losing weight, and you are not trying to.
8. You describe yourself as having a "sensitive" stomach.
9. You turn down invitations because you really need to be close to your bathroom at home.
10. Healthy foods like apples and onions make you feel uncomfortable, or worse.
11. You can’t remember the last time you felt like going to a restaurant; every time you go to one, you end up feeling sick.

There are several signs and symptoms of digestive disorders, some quite subtle and easy to overlook. People get used to the way they are and often just put up with it. When the symptoms get worse and worse, it only means that the condition has gone on untreated for longer and longer, doing more and more damage to your stomach and cheating your body out of the nourishment it needs.

Any digestive disorder is a serious condition. If you suspect that you have one, it is important to know exactly what kind of disorder you have. Pains that occur an hour or two after meals or in the morning, for instance, and go away after eating food or taking an antacid are typical of ulcers. IBS doesn’t cause a skin reaction or wheezing, but a food allergy might. Your specific condition may be one that requires a medical treatment, possibly in combination with a low-FODMAP diet. 

Here are nine common signs of a digestive disorder to discuss with your doctor:
Persistent abdominal pain and cramps
Blood in the stool
Weight loss
Persistent heartburn

Common Treatments Your Doctor May Prescribe
Before prescribing any treatment, including the low-FODMAP diet, your doctor will want to make sure you don’t have some other serious intestinal condition with similar symptoms, including autoimmune diseases like celiac disease. Your doctor will need a detailed account of your condition, including when you experience symptoms, how frequently they occur, and whether anything specific causes a reaction or helps it to pass.
Beyond that, your doctor may suggest that you take different tests, such as blood tests, an upper or lower GI series, ultrasound, endoscopy, and barium GI studies. Some serious conditions may require a CAT scan or an MRI. It is possible that your doctor will take a biopsy during endoscopic procedures, since there could be other medical conditions involved. The FDA approved an effective breath test for peptic ulcers in 1996, for example, that makes diagnosis of this condition possible without an invasive procedure.

If you have a condition, your diagnosis may be one of the following:
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Crohn’s disease
Ulcerative colitis
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Acid reflux (GERD)
Peptic ulcer

Regarding digestive disorders such as Crohn’s disease or IBS, doctors customize treatments and management programs to suit an individual’s specific condition and its severity. 
The basic lifestyle modifications are the same ones you hear for most serious medical conditions:
Stop smoking.
Limit or reduce alcohol consumption and caffeinated beverages.
Eat small meals.
Get regular exercise and fresh air.
Use meditation or relaxation techniques.

Different medications are available over the counter to treat conditions like heartburn, constipation, or diarrhea. When these symptoms are severe, your doctor can prescribe medications to deal with the symptoms. Options can include fiber supplements, antispasmodics, antacids, and laxatives.

Living inside a body that seems to be turning against you is difficult in more than one way. It is possible that the stress caused by the condition can actually make it worse. In some cases, counseling and antidepressants may be appropriate. And some conditions can be improved by surgery, to improve the way the gut works or to remove blockages from the intestines.
For many suffering from digestive disorders, a low-FODMAP diet is able to alleviate these symptoms without any medications or their aggravating side effects. More and more, doctors are recommending the low-FODMAP diet for their patients. They may even suggest consultation with a dietitian or nutritionist, because the diet represents a significant change in terms of the foods you cook and eat. And motivation is built into this diet, because many people report feeling better very quickly.

A FODMAP diet consists of an initial phase, sometimes called the acute phase or elimination phase. The purpose of this stage, which usually lasts two weeks, is to give your digestive system a chance to reset. During this stage, the aim is to avoid foods that are high in FODMAPs. Fruits, for example, are limited on the diet, and serving sizes and how often you eat them are controlled. There are suggested serving sizes for fresh and dried fruits, as well as some moderate FODMAP vegetables like sweet potatoes. It can be challenging to stick to a menu that is perhaps less varied than you are used to, but this stage is important for getting your body back to feeling good and being healthy.

Once you have completed the acute phase, you reintroduce foods in a series of controlled "challenges." In this phase, you gradually expand your food options with selections and quantities that are comfortable for you. Some people find that they can tolerate garlic, for instance, as long as it isn’t consumed more than once a day; for others, garlic may remain a problem.

The challenges phase of the diet is set up in a systematic fashion, over two or three days, with each challenge separated from another by about four days. Through this process, you will find a new world of foods which you once thought were a problems are now a safe and delicious part of your diet. It is not uncommon for someone who suspects he or she is are lactose-intolerant to find out that milk is not a trigger food.

On the first day of the challenge, you add a small amount, about half a serving, of a high-FODMAP food from the group you are investigating. If you have a reaction from a small amount, you stop the challenge and return to the acute phase diet for three or four days before starting the next challenge. But if you do not react to a small serving, the next day, you have a larger serving and observe your reaction. If you can tolerate the food, you can reintroduce it to your diet safely, as long as you don’t overdo it in terms of the frequency or size of the servings. Then you move on to the next challenge, and so on, until you have identified all the FODMAP foods that are appropriate for you and those that are not.

Food Sources with High FODMAPs

Fructans: Wheat, rye, onions, garlic, asparagus, artichokes, snow peas
Galactans (GOS): Legumes (chickpeas, lentils, navy beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, black-eyed peas, etc.)
Lactose: Milk, yogurt, soft or fresh cheeses (ricotta, cottage cheese)
Fructose: Honey, apples, pears, watermelon, mango, cherries
Polyols: Apples, pears, stone fruits, mushrooms, cauliflower, sugar-free mints and gums

As you continue the process, you may find that certain groups of foods, such as those containing high amounts of fructans or galactans, or polyols, are particular problems for you. Some foods contain more than one type of sachharide or polyol. You should introduce any new food to your diet cautiously, as you would in a challenge, to determine whether and how much you can tolerate.

A low-FODMAP diet can be healthy and delicious. The point of an elimination diet is to eventually reintroduce as many foods as you can tolerate. A long-term diet that excludes a wide range of foods is usually impossible to follow. And there is a danger that you might end up deficient in some important nutrients. The aim of the low-FODMAPS diet is to recondition your digestive system and to identify foods you can tolerate and enjoy over a lifetime.

Why The Low-Fodmap Diet Works

The low-FODMAP diet works by identifying the foods that are problems for you to absorb and helping you avoid them in irritating quantities. When your body is constantly assaulted by high-FODMAP foods, your entire digestive system has to work very hard, but it isn’t working very effectively because it is irritated and inflamed. Once the irritants are removed, as they are on the initial stage of a FODMAP diet, your system can calm down. When that happens, you can start to see the distinction between how a specific food makes you feel, rather than feeling generally horrible no matter what you eat. You learn to determine, for example, if it was the glass of milk that gave you problems or the whole grain cereal you poured it over for breakfast.

The first phase of the diet is challenging because it requires monitoring and planning, and because you have a rather short list of suitable foods to eat across a wide range of categories. But by taking advantage of the planning and observing aspects of the diet, you lay the groundwork for moving back into an eating pattern that is rich and varied. For some people, the effects are so positive that they actually limit themselves from more foods than they need to, because they are all too aware of what can happen if they eat something that does not agree with them.

Is The Low-Fodmap Diet Right For You?

Everyone’s situation is different, and the low-FODMAP diet can adapt to a wide range of possibilities. 

Here are some common questions you may have about the Low-Fodmap Diet plan.

Q 1. I prefer to follow a vegetarian diet. Is this diet safe for me?
Finding a variety of foods during the first few weeks of the diet is challenging for everyone, but vegetarians may be especially challenged in finding adequate protein. If you are a lacto-ovo vegetarian and can include eggs and cheese, getting enough protein is not a problem. There are many plant-based protein foods that you can choose from, including nuts and peanuts. Seitan, made from vital wheat gluten, is another option.

Q 2. Can I lose weight on the low-FODMAP diet?
Some foods on the low-FODMAP diet are consumed in small quantities. This kind of portion awareness is a good start for weight loss. You can adjust serving sizes to keep calories under control, as long as you don’t restrict yourself too severely. Be sure you are eating enough to maintain your overall health and energy levels. Many people report that they do lose weight on the low-FODMAP plan without planning to do so. Whether that is because they are simply paying more attention to what they eat or because the inflammation and water-retention in the gut diminishes is hard to establish.

Q 3. Is the low-FODMAP diet the same thing as a gluten-free diet?
No. Someone with gluten intolerance, like celiac disease, must strictly avoid wheat, rye, and barley. These grains do contain gluten. However, gluten itself is not a FODMAP food. Looking for gluten-free versions of pastas, cereals, and crackers is a good way to avoid some FODMAPs, but that is because "gluten-free" usually signals "wheat-free" as well. As long as you do not have a specific intolerance to gluten, it is the wheat you need to avoid, not the gluten.

Q 4. I have lactose intolerance, but there seems to be dairy and cheese on many low-FODMAP plans. Why are some quantities of dairy included?
Milk sugar, or lactose, is a significant part of milk and is a FODMAP item. However, when milk is processed into butter, cheese, and cream, the watery portion of the milk, which contains the lactose, is reduced to a level that usually is not a problem. In the case of cultured milks and creams, like yogurt, kefir, and buttermilk, it is best to look for lactose-free alternatives, although some studies show that traditionally cultured yogurt and kefir, made with a specific bacterial culture, actually predigest the lactose, making it safe for some people.

Q 5. I have celiac disease. Is there anything special I should know about the low-FODMAP diet?
Celiac disease is a serious condition that requires medical care and monitoring. The disease actually attacks the lining of the intestine and damages it. Someone with celiac disease must avoid all gluten to prevent further damage. If you have celiac disease, you must be vigilant about avoiding gluten, so some foods on the low-FODMAP plan may not be suitable for you.

Q 6. When I read about FODMAPs, I get conflicting information about foods that are and are not considered low-FODMAP items. Why is that happening?
More and more foods are being evaluated for the quantity and type of FODMAPs they contain. As information becomes available, it is released.
Sometimes it supports previous information, sometimes it contradicts it. In addition, people with IBS and similar conditions, especially, have to take a very personal approach to controlling what and how they eat. Books and websites based on personal experience with FODMAPs have some valuable information, but always regard online anecdotal statements with caution. A third consideration is that foods are not as uniform as you might imagine. One beet is quite different from another, so likewise, some people find a certain food tolerable on a low-FODMAP diet while others do not. Response can depend on factors like the variety that was grown, the soil it grew in, how old the vegetable was when you ate it, and how much of it you consumed.

Q 7 I have food allergies and sensitivities that already limit the foods I can safely eat. Will there be anything left to eat if I start a low-FODMAP diet?
The low-FODMAP diet is varied enough to adapt to such special concerns as milk or soy allergies, although the very early stages of the diet may seem a bit restrictive. Concentrate on foods you know you can eat without a problem and focus on finding simple, safe ways to add more flavor and color to dishes through herbs and spices.

Q 8. Could there be FODMAPs in my medicines?
It is possible that your medications, even your vitamins and dietary supplements, contain FODMAPs, but if so, they are generally in such low quantities that they do not have any effect. However, if you are taking a number of different medications and you do have an allergy or intolerance, you should talk to your doctor or pharmacist to find out more about how your medicines are made and whether there are any safer alternatives.

FODMAP Dietery Guide

If your doctor has suggested a low-FODMAP diet for you, you will discover that the diet takes a fresh and careful look at all of the foods you eat. Your dietary needs are not the same as someone else’s. Your doctor may suggest that you work with a dietitian or nutritionist to help map out your plan, especially if you have other conditions that may further limit your food options, such as allergies or celiac disease.
During the first phase of a low-FODMAP diet, your food options will change dramatically. Some foods have a lot of substances like fructans, galactans, polyols, or lactose—high FODMAPs, in other words—while others have little or none of an offending substance—low FODMAPs. 

Many foods you may consider not only delicious but healthful are high-FODMAP foods. An apple a day may keep the doctor away if you have a healthy digestive system, but if you have a digestive disorder like IBS, it might send you into a serious gastrointestinal tailspin. Apples, onions, and garlic, among other foods, are considered healthful, but because of their fructans, for the time being they are foods you should avoid.

You should try eating small meals, spaced fairly regularly throughout the day. Eating large amounts of anything all at once can be disruptive while your system is still under siege.

A gluten-free diet is not the same thing as a low FODMAP diet, but when it comes to certain foods, seeing a "gluten-free" statement on a package in the grocery store can be of assistance. You’ll still need to read the nutrition label, since there can be high FODMAPs in gluten-free foods, but you can often find appropriate alternatives for flours, grains, cereals, breads, and baked goods by focusing on those gluten-free foods when you shop.

Researchers are learning more about FODMAPs, and foods are shifting from the excluded group to the included group. This can lead to confusion. 
Some FODMAP dietary guides include beets and broccoli, for example, while others exclude coconut and avocado. In the following lists, you will find foods that are currently considered foods to enjoy, foods to enjoy in moderation, and foods to avoid. 

Here are a few general FODMAP guidelines to keep in mind:
Limit alcohol intake and opt for clear spirits with sparkling water.
Drink plenty of water.
Eat in moderation.
Chew your food well.
Limit processed foods to cut down on hidden FODMAPs and irritants.
Remember that fresh fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish are best.

Use the following guidelines for fruits:

Limit intake of suitable fruits to 1 serving per meal e.g., one banana or orange).
Drink one-third to one-half a glass of suitable juice.
An appropriate portion for berries or grapes is a small handful.
An appropriate portion for suitable dried fruits is about 2 tablespoons (about 10 raisins).
Choose unsweetened dried fruits (because many are coated in sugar).

Suitable Fruits

Suitable Dried Fruits

Fruits to Limit
Honeydew melon

Fruits to Avoid

In the early stages of your low-FODMAP diet, stick to the suitable vegetables listed below. As you progress through the diet, you can begin to reintroduce others to your diet if you tolerate them easily. You’ll find a few vegetables that are somewhat controversial, like avocados, in the recipes in this book. You should skip them entirely if they cause you trouble, but for most people, they are tolerated if you stay at or below the suggested serving size.

Suitable Vegetables
Alfalfa sprouts
Baby corn
Bamboo shoots
Bean shoots
Bok choy
Chilis (hot)
Chinese cabbage (choy sum)
Green beans
Green onions (green part only)

Vegetables to Limit

Vegetables to Avoid
Artichokes (globe and Jerusalem)
Brussels sprouts
Dandelion greens
Green onions (white part)
Snow peas
Sugar snap peas
Sweet potatoes

Dairy and Dairy Alternatives, and Cooking Fats
This food category includes milks, cheeses, cultured dairy products like yogurt and kefir, as well as cooking fats like butter and oil.
Suitable Dairy/Fats

Almond milk
Camembert and Brie cheese
Coconut milk
Custards and puddings made with lactose-free milk
Edam cheese
Hard cheeses (like Parmesan)
Dairy-free ice cream substitutes (gelato, sorbet)
Lactose-free ice creams or desserts
Lactose-free milk
Lactose-free yogurt
Limburger cheese
Provolone cheese
Rice milk
Romano cheese
Swiss cheese
Vegetable oils

Dairy/Fats to Limit or Avoid
Cream (light cream, half-and-half, whipping cream)
Cream cheese
Creamed soups
Evaporated milk
Fresh cheeses (e.g. ricotta, cottage cheese)
Ice cream
Milk, regular and low-fat milk (cow, goat, sheep)
Milk powder
Milk products (creamer, instant cocoa, etc.)
Processed cheese, cheese spreads
Puddings, custards
Regular and low-fat yogurt
Soft cheeses
Sour cream
Soy milk
Sweetened condensed milk
Yogurt, sweetened/flavored

Low-FODMAP diet Shopping List

A low-FODMAP diet doesn’t have to be bland or boring. There are plenty of ways to add flavor and excitement to your meals, whether you love Mexican, French, Italian, or Asian foods. Be sure to read all labels on any canned, bottled, or packaged foods to identify foods that you are trying to avoid and look for alternatives that are safe for you to eat during the acute phase of the diet. 

Here are some spices, herbs, and other ingredients that you can use to add flavor to your food and also a few important go-to items to stock in your pantry:

Basic Items:
Canned tomatoes (whole and peeled, crushed, or diced; avoid tomato paste or products with tomato paste)
Canned tuna, salmon, or crab
Coconut milk
Fish sauce
Oils including olive oil, nut oils, coconut oil, seed oils

Spices, whole and ground
Spice blends (check the label to look for any FODMAP ingredients)
Sun-dried tomatoes
Tamarind paste
Fresh and dried herbs are a perfect way to add flavor without FODMAPs. The recipes in this book rely on the following:

Suitable Nuts and Seeds
Nuts and seeds are used widely in FODMAP cooking, as long as portion sizes are monitored. The only nuts you need to avoid are cashews and pistachios (although some plans permit these nuts).
Chia seed
Brazil nuts
Macadamia nuts
Pine nuts
Pumpkin seeds
Sunflower seeds
Nut butters and seed butters (but avoid cashew and pistachio)

You might be surprised to find that some FODMAP recipes call for regular white or brown sugar, but they can be appropriate as long as they are kept to a minimal level. Here are some other alternatives to try as a sweetener and in baked goods.
Suitable Sweeteners (in Limited and Controlled Amounts)
Golden syrup
Maple syrup
White, brown, and raw
Suitable non-nutritive sweeteners such as stevia

Sweeteners to Avoid
Artificial sweeteners (see exceptions above)
Corn syrups
Corn syrup solids
Chicory root extract
High-fructose corn syrup
Sugar-free or low-carb sweets, mints, gums, and dairy desserts

Soy Products
One area of concern is soy and soy products. Most experts on the low-FODMAP diet conclude that soy sauce and tofu are acceptable. Your own level of tolerance may be different, however, so use these foods with caution and eat only the recommended amounts. Sometimes, a few mouthfuls can make the difference between feeling fine and feeling awful.

Baking is probably one of the trickiest areas for someone following a low-FODMAP diet. It is hard to forgo breads and pastries for weeks at a time. To make appropriate dishes while you are on the acute phase, you may want to stock up on a few specialty flours and thickeners. Most of the items in the following list are available in larger grocery stores as well as natural food stores. You can also find many of them online. 

Alternative Grains, Flours, and Thickeners
Arrowroot powder
Coconut flour
Gluten-free breads
Gluten-free cereals
Potato flour
Rice flour
Teff flour
Xanthan gum
Wheat and Rye Products to Avoid
Barley (pearl and whole-grain)
Bread crumbs
Breakfast cereals
Bulgur wheat
Cakes and pastries
Pasta and noodles
Rye (unless it is wheat-free; however most rye breads have significant amounts of wheat flour)
Semolina (contains wheat)

Low FODMAP Cooking Methods and Equipment

Foods can be cooked by almost any technique you like, but it is a good idea to limit or avoid fried foods. They can be difficult for anyone to digest and have the effect of either slowing foods down or speeding them up on their way through your gut.
Since many people on the low-FODMAP diet miss the flavor of garlic and onions, garlic- and onion-infused creams and oils make a good alternative. Add the garlic or onion to the oil or cream, heat them together, and then take them from the heat to cool. While the oil or cream cools, the flavors are steeped into them so you get the flavor without the FODMAPs.

Basic Cooking Equipment
Blender (electric)
Cutting board
Food mill
Food processor
Grater or microplane
Immersion blender
Mandoline or Japanese slicer
Measuring cups, for liquids and for dry items
Measuring spoons
Mixing bowls
Rolling pin
Rubber scrapers
Salad spinner
Sharp knives
Skillets, sauté pans, crêpe or omelet pan, saucepans, heavy sauce pot, soup or stock pot, roasting pans, roasting rack, cooling racks, loaf pans, casserole baking dishes, muffins tins, and cake pans
Spice grinder
Stand or hand electric mixer
Wooden spoons, for stirring

Dining Out on the Low-FODMAP Diet

To get the most out of the first stage of a FODMAP diet, you may find it easier to eat at home. But no matter what stage of the diet you are on, you should know the basic guidelines for eating out at restaurants.

Choose a friendly cuisine. Asian cuisines (e.g., Chinese, Thai, Japanese, Korean, Indian, and Vietnamese) are usually rice-based, while Mediterranean cuisines are usually wheat-based.
Avoid soups and stews that are made in large batches. These dishes almost always include onions and garlic that have been simmered in the dish.
Ask for sauces and dressings on the side. You can control how much you use or skip it altogether.
Order bottled water, plain or flavored seltzer, or tea instead of juices and sodas.
Order grilled or broiled meats, fish, and poultry, served with the sauce on the side.
Look for side dishes like baked potatoes or rice that are low-FODMAP items.
Remember that the effects of FODMAPs are cumulative; you can "save up" a serving of a food like butter or cream to have when you are dining out.
Hot cereals like oatmeal or simple egg dishes are good bets at breakfast, and are available even at fast-food outlets.
Ask the waiter which dishes contain garlic, onions, or other foods that are problems for you and find out if they can be left out or if they are cooked into the dish.
Salads are one of the easiest dishes to modify to remove FODMAPs.
Sushi and sashimi are usually good choices for a low-FODMAP diet.



14-Day Menu Plan

Week 1

Breakfast: Strawberry-Banana Smoothie and a slice of Pumpkin Bread
Snack: Deviled Eggs
Lunch: Escarole Soup
Dinner: Pork and Eggplant Stir-Fry
Steamed rice

Breakfast: Carrot Muffins
Snack: 1 cup lactose-free or nut milk and 1 small piece of fruit
Lunch: Chef Salad
Dinner: Crispy Tarragon Chicken
Scalloped Potatoes
Steamed green beans

Breakfast: Orange Cranberry Walnut Scones
Snack: Granola with lactose-free yogurt
Lunch: Panini
Dinner: Cedar-Planked Salmon
Green Rice
Green salad with suitable vegetables

Breakfast: Granola
Snack: Stuffed Endive
Lunch: Cobb Salad
Dinner: Pan-Seared Flatiron Steak with Tapenade
Sautéed Swiss Chard

Breakfast: Dutch Baby with Hash Browns
Snack: Spiced Nuts
Lunch: Turkey and Brie Sandwiches
Dinner: Oat-Crusted Cod
Green Rice
Steamed green beans

Breakfast: Oat and Almond Waffles
Snack: Pickled Carrots
Lunch: Margherita "Pizzas"
Dinner: Baked Spaghetti and Meatballs
Green salad with suitable vegetables

Breakfast: Poached Eggs on Turkey Hash
Snack: Sun-Dried Tomato "Hummus" with Vegetable Chips
Lunch: Reuben Sandwiches
Dinner: Chicken Curry
Green Rice
Sautéed Swiss Chard


Week 2


Breakfast: Pineapple Parfait
Snack: Spiced Nuts
Lunch: Caesar Salad
Dinner: Meatloaf
Scalloped Potatoes
Steamed or boiled corn

Breakfast: Poached Eggs and Hash Browns
Snack: 1 cup lactose-free or nut milk and 1 small piece of fruit
Lunch: Tuna Melts
Dinner: Chicken Saltimbocca
Sautéed Swiss Chard

Breakfast: Scrambled Eggs with Ham
Snack: Stuffed Endive
Lunch: Tortilla Soup
Dinner: Shrimp Diavolo
Green salad with suitable vegetables

Breakfast: Grits with a breakfast steak (4 ounces)
Snack: Granola with lactose-free yogurt
Lunch: Niçoise Salad
Dinner: Vegetable Biryani

Breakfast: Frittata with Spinach and Potato
Snack: Sun-Dried Tomato "Hummus" with Vegetable Chips
Lunch: Spinach Salad
Dinner: Chili con Carne
Steamed rice

Breakfast: Buckwheat Crêpes filled with Scrambled Eggs with Ham
Snack: Pickled Carrots
Lunch: Minestrone
Dinner: Lemon Parsley Stuffed Trout
Green Rice

Breakfast: Almond French Toast
1 cup lactose-free or nut milk and 1 small piece of fruit
Snack: Spiced Nuts
Lunch: Tostadas
Dinner: Navarin-Style Leg of Lamb